By John P. Rafferty

ISBN-10: 161530388X

ISBN-13: 9781615303885

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The second involves a statistical analysis of the various weather elements, principally temperature, moisture, atmospheric pressure, and wind speed, and a detailed examination of the basic relationships between such elements. Since the 1960s a third main branch, dynamic meteorology, has emerged. It deals primarily with the numerical simulation of climate and climatic change, employing models of atmospheric processes based on the fundamental equations of dynamic meteorology. Other significant subdisciplines of climatology include bioclimatology and paleoclimatology.

Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Organization published a new International Cloud Atlas (1956) in two volumes. It contains 224 plates, describing 10 main cloud genera (families) subdivided into 14 species based on cloud shape and structure. Nine general varieties, based on transparency and geometric arrangement, also are described. The genera, listed according to their height, are as follows: 1. High: mean heights from 5 to 13 km, or 3 to 8 miles a. Cirrus b. Cirrocumulus c. Cirrostratus 33 7 Climate and Climate Change 7 2.

That such systems rarely produce rain, as distinct from drizzle, unless their tops are colder than about −12 °C (10 °F) suggests that ice crystals are mainly responsible. This view is supported by the fact that the radar signals from these clouds usually take a characteristic form that has been clearly identified with the melting of snowflakes. Showers, Thunderstorms, and Hail Precipitation from shower clouds and thunderstorms, whether in the form of raindrops, pellets of soft hail, or true hailstones, is generally of great intensity and shorter duration than that from layer clouds and is usually composed of larger particles.

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Climate and Climate Change by John P. Rafferty


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