By Stephen J. Simpson
Advances in Insect body structure publishes eclectic volumes containing very important, entire and in-depth stories on all elements of insect body structure. it truly is a necessary reference resource for invertebrate physiologists and neurobiologists, entomologists, zoologists and bug biochemists. First released in 1963, the serial is now edited by way of Steve Simpson and Jerome Casas to supply a world viewpoint. * greater than three hundred pages with contributions from the prime researchers in entomology * Over forty figures and illustrations mixed * contains an in-depth overview of the genetics of the honey bee * Discusses the physiological range in bugs
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Extra resources for Advances in Insect Physiology, Vol. 35
2001). , 2004). , 2007). It thus appears that transporters used for the excretion of excess water and 28 MICHAEL O’DONNELL excess ions can be regulated in insect Malpighian tubules. , 2005). One of the aquaporins, Drosophila integral protein (DrIP) is similar to human AQP4, a channel that exhibits the highest rates of water transport, and it is localized to the stellate cells. DrIP contains several residues consistent with its actions as a water-speciﬁc channel. 4 Secretion and reabsorption by downstream segments of the Malpighian tubule and the hindgut A common feature of the insect excretory system is the modiﬁcation of the ﬂuid secreted by Malpighian tubules in a downstream segment of the tubules themselves or in the hindgut.
The cytoplasm becomes extensively vacuolated and the mitochondria move into areas adjacent the transport membranes. In addition, the CaPO4 spherites become associated with both mitochondria and vesicles during this period. Although some of the spherites dissolve, many appear to be exocytosed intact into the tubule lumen (Spring and Felgenhauer, 1996). Presumably, release of spherites during diuresis in effect ﬂushes them into the hindgut. In this way, the tubule lumen does not become obstructed, as might occur if the spherites were released into the lumen during periods of slow ﬂuid secretion.
Both ﬂuid secretion and the calcium-mediated increase in anion conductance are inhibited by ClÀ channel blockers such as niﬂumic acid. Vibrating probe analysis has revealed a small number of current density hot spots, coincident with stellate cells, and currents associated with the stellate cells are reduced by low-chloride saline or chloride channel blockers. Targeted expression of an aequorin transgene has been used to demonstrate that the neurohormone leucokinin elicits a rapid increase in intracellular calcium levels in stellate cells before physiological effects are evident.
Advances in Insect Physiology, Vol. 35 by Stephen J. Simpson