By Rodney Huddleston, Geoffrey K. Pullum

ISBN-10: 0521612888

ISBN-13: 9780521612883

This groundbreaking undergraduate textbook on glossy common English grammar is the 1st to be in accordance with the progressive advances of the authors' prior paintings, The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language (2002). The textual content is meant for college kids in schools or universities who've very little past history in grammar, and presupposes no linguistics. It includes routines, and should offer a foundation for introductions to grammar and classes at the constitution of English, not just in linguistics departments but in addition in English language and literature departments and colleges of schooling.

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1 'Dynamic have ' , by contrast, occurs in clauses describing events, like He had a fit. Dynamic have is a lexical verb for all speakers. These facts are illustrated in [23 ] : LEXICAL VERB USAGE AUXILIARY USAGE [23] a. 11 a. iii a. iv a. Have you told her? %Has he enough money ? %Have I to sign both forms ? *Has he a fit when you do that? b. b. b. b. *Do you have told her? Does he have enough money. Do I have to sign both forms ? Does he have a fit when you do that? [ perfect ] } [ static ] [dynamic] (c) Need Need behaves as an auxiliary (a modal auxiliary) when it has a bare infinitival com­ plement (overt or understood).

Be patient. Imperatives are characteristically used to issue what we call directives, a term covering requests, commands, instructions, etc. 4 Coordination Syntactically, the most important difference between imperatives and declara­ tives is that they usually contain no subject, though there is a covert subject understood: [b] is interpreted as "You be patient". There is also a difference in the inflectional form of the verb: are in [a] is a pres­ ent tense form, but be in [b] is not. 3 Subordination The distinction between subordinate and main clauses has already been introduced in connection with our discussion of subordinators as a word cate­ gory.

Does she do her best? (b) Have Have is always an auxiliary when it marks perfect tense (where it normally occurs with a following past participle). When it occurs in clauses describing states, expressing such meanings as posses­ sion (He has enough money) or obligation ( You have to sign both forms), usage is divided. Most speakers treat it as a lexical verb, but some treat it as an auxil­ iary, especially in the present tense. Those speakers accept %Has he enough money ? and similar examples. We refer to this use as 'static have ' .

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A Student's Introduction to English Grammar by Rodney Huddleston, Geoffrey K. Pullum


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