By David Arthur deSilva
This statement examines four Maccabees as a contribution to the continued reformulation of Jewish id and perform within the Greek-speaking Diaspora. It analyzes the Jewish author’s interplay with, and facility in, Greek rhetorical conventions, moral philosophy, and literary tradition, giving recognition additionally to his use and interpretation of texts and traditions from the Jewish Scriptures and different Hellenistic Jewish writings. The statement indicates the author’s skillful weaving jointly of some of these assets to create a textual content that translates the Torah-observant lifestyles because the fullest embodiment of the simplest Greek moral beliefs. a particular function is the exam of ways the adventure of analyzing four Maccabees in Codex Sinaiticus differs from the event of interpreting the eclectic textual content.
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Extra info for 4 Maccabees: Introduction And Commentary on the Greek Text in Codex Sinaiticus (Septuagint Commentary Series,)
Poly. 11; see 4 Macc 9:7–9, 31–32; 10:11; 13:14–15). Martyrdom of Polycarp employs the concept of “witness bearing” as testimony given through the endurance of suﬀerings and death in the same sense as found in 4 Macc 16:16 (see Mart. Poly. 1; 13; 17). As in Ignatius, who exercised a strong inﬂuence upon a younger Polycarp, the martyr’s death is a new birth (Mart. Poly. 18; 4 Macc. 16:13). In both 4 Maccabees and Martyrdom of Polycarp, the martyr takes the prize and is crowned with immortality (Mart.
Reading that the brothers were “compacted together” (συvστρέφovται, 13:21) by their early lives together, rather than simply being “nursed together” (συvτρέφovται in Rahlfs), makes a greater impression upon the reader of Sinaiticus in regard to the unity, harmony, and solidarity shared among the brothers, a topic that the author invokes so heavily. At two places, the reading in Sinaiticus calls greater attention to the emotional turmoil experienced – and overcome – by the martyrs, thus again heightening the reader’s appreciation for the power of pious reason (κατoικτιζoμέvoυς rather than καταικιζoμέvoυς at 13:27, drawing attention to the compassion felt by the brothers for each other; αὐτήv in place of αὐτῆς in 16:3, which becomes an intensiﬁer underscoring the mother’s experience of torment).
23 καὶ τούτῳ νόμον δέδωκεν, καθ’ ὃν πολιτευόμενος βασιλεύσει βασιλεία(ν) σώϕρονά τε καὶ δικαίαν καὶ ἀγαθὴν καὶ ἀνδρείαν. 1 ἔστιν δὲ κομιδῇ γελοῖος ὁ λόγος. οὐ γὰρ τῶν ἑαυτοῦ παθῶν ὁ λογισμὸς} ἐπικρατεῖν* ϕαίνεται, ἀλ[λ]ὰ τῶν σωματικῶν. 2 οἷον ἐπιθυμίαν τις ἐκκόψαι οὐ δύναται ἡμῶν, ἀλλὰ μὴ δουλωθῆναι τῇ ἐπιθυμίᾳ δύναται ὁ λογισμὸς παρεχέσθαι. 3 θυμόν τις οὐ δύναται ὑμῶν ἐκκόψαι τῆς ψυχῆς, ἀλλὰ τῷ θυμῷ δυνατὸν τὸν λογισμὸν βοηθῆσαι. 4 κακοήθ[ε]ιάν τις ὑμῶν οὐ δύναται ἐκκόψαι, ἀλλὰ τὸ μὴ καμϕθῆναι τῇ κακοηθ[ε]ίᾳ δύναιτ’ ἂν ὁ λογισμὸς συμμαχῆσαι.
4 Maccabees: Introduction And Commentary on the Greek Text in Codex Sinaiticus (Septuagint Commentary Series,) by David Arthur deSilva